Gastrointestinal hormones in health and diseases

Polypeptides are the main kind of gastrointestinal (GI) hormones, which are generated in and secreted by specialised gut endocrine cells. Chemical transmitters produced by these cells play a role in GI motility, secretion, absorption, growth, development, and the control of food intake. The enteric and central nervous systems both include a large number of the peptides that are found in the GI tract. Here, a general discussion of the synthesis, secretion, and control of GI peptides, as well as their function in the development of disease and clinical use, will be provided. The control and purposes of the various GI peptides are covered individually. See "Physiology of somatostatin and its analogues" and "Physiology of cholecystokinin" and "Secretin," as well as "Physiology of gastrin" and "Ghrelin" and "Pancreatic Polypeptide, Peptide YY, and Neuropeptide Y" and "Insulin action".

Synthesis- The GI tract is filled with enteroendocrine cells that produce gastrointestinal (GI) peptides. But certain cell types exhibit geographical specialisation (table 2) [3]. This selectivity can be connected to the receptor's position and the peptide's physiological function. Until recently, it was thought that an enteroendocrine cell generated only one hormone, with the exception of the L cell, which also produced peptide YY (PYY). However, it was found by single-cell RNA analysis that there is more diversity than was previously thought [4]. For instance, almost all enteroendocrine cells express secretin, which is thought to only be produced by S cells. Proglucagon, PYY, and cholecystokinin are frequently expressed in the same cell type. Given these fresh discoveries, it is conceivable there will soon be an enteroendocrine cell classification scheme. By converting DNA into messenger RNA (mRNA), which is then translated into the precursor proteins known as preprohormones, all GI peptides are produced. Ribosomes, which are intricate organelles made up of several proteins (more than 50) and numerous big RNA molecules, are where translation takes place.

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