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The Pancreas is a pear-shaped gland positioned in the abdomen between the stomach and the spine. It consists of two major components. The exocrine component consists of ducts and small sacs called acini on the end of the ducts. The endocrine component of the pancreas consist of cells lumped together in different locations within this part of the pancreas, called Islets of Langerhans. These cells create specific hormones, most importantly Insulin. Our blood sugar level is maintained by insulin.

 

Pancreatitis may be of acute pancreatitis which means it happens suddenly and lasts for days. Or pancreatitis can be of chronic pancreatitis, which is pancreatitis that occurs over many years. Minor cases of pancreatitis may go away without treatment, but severe cases can cause life-threatening complications.

The liver is the body’s largest internal organ that sits on the right hand side of the belly. It is an essential organ that has many functions in the body, including making proteins and blood clotting factors, manufacturing triglycerides and  cholesterol, glycogen synthesis and bile production. The liver filters the blood coming from the digestive tract and detoxifies the chemicals and metabolizes the vitamins, proteins, fats, carbohydrates and drugs. The liver secrets the bile that ends up back in the intestine.

The human liver is usually perceived as a non-immunological organ engaged primarily in metabolic, nutrient storage and detoxification activities. The healthy liver is also a site of complex immunological activity mediated by a diverse immune cell repertoire as well as non-hematopoietic cell populations. In the non-diseased liver, metabolic and tissue remodeling functions require elements of inflammation. In this complex microenvironment, the hepatic immune system tolerates harmless molecules while at the same time remaining alert to possible infectious agents, malignant cells or tissue damage.

In the healthy liver, constantly changing metabolic and tissue remodeling activity, combined with regular exposure to microbial products, results in persistent, regulated inflammation. These inflammatory processes act in a tightly controlled fashion and are stimulated to additional activity only when the liver is required to rid itself of hepatotropic pathogens, malignant cells or toxic products of metabolic activity. Failure to clear such dangerous stimuli and resolve inflammation, leads to chronic infection, autoimmunity or tumor growth. This is inevitably associated with chronic pathological inflammation and disrupted tissue homeostasis, which can progress to fibrosis, cirrhosis and liver failure.

Histological examinations of liver biopsy before treatment showed accumulation of fat within the hepatocytes, bile duct endothelium and epithelium and kupffer cells which contain the portal macrophages. The liver serves as the filtration ground of absorbed intestinal luminal contents which are particularly susceptible to microbial antigens.

Hepatobiliary diseases are diseases that affect the biliary tract or the liver. Cholangiocarcinoma is usually a bile duct that presents a malignant tumor. Treating the disease requires removal and/or resection. Biliary structures (both malignant and benign) – occur when the bile ducts become inflamed or injured. The ducts narrow and form a stricture. They are often caused by injury or cancer. Bile duct stones – are stones that occur within the bile duct, similar to a gallstone. They often start developing in the gallbladder and make their way into the bile duct. The hepatobiliary system is made up of the liver, gall bladder and bile ducts. Conditions or diseases that cause harm to these areas, which can be life threatening, are referred to as hepatobiliary diseases.

Caroli disease and Caroli syndrome are rare congenital disorders of the intrahepatic bile ducts. They are both characterized by dilatation of the intrahepatic biliary tree. The term Caroli disease is applied if the disease is limited to ectasia or segmental dilatation of the larger intrahepatic ducts. Biliary atresia is a rare disease of the liver and bile ducts that occurs in infants. Neonatal hemochromatosis is a syndrome in which severe liver disease of fetal or perinatal onset is associated with deposition of stainable iron in extrahepatic sites. Survival rates in babies who undergo liver transplantation are reportedly 50%.

A liver metastasis is a cancerous tumor that has spread to the liver from cancer that started in another place in the body. It’s also called secondary liver cancer. Primary liver cancer originates in the liver and most commonly affects individuals who have risk factors such as hepatitis or cirrhosis. Cancer in the liver is secondary, or metastatic. There may be no symptoms in the early stages of liver metastasis. In later stages, cancer can cause the liver to swell or obstruct the normal flow of blood and bile. When this happens, loss of appetite, weight loss, dark-colored urine, abdominal swelling or bloating, jaundice, a yellowing of the skin or the whites of the eyes, pain in the right shoulder, pain in the upper right abdomen, nausea, vomiting, confusion, sweats, and fever, enlarged liver.

Cirrhosis is a late stage of scarring (fibrosis) of the liver caused by many forms of liver diseases and conditions, such as hepatitis and chronic alcoholism. Cirrhosis occurs in response to damage to your liver. Each time your liver is injured, it tries to repair itself. In the process, scar tissue forms. As cirrhosis progresses, more and more scar tissue forms, making it difficult for the liver to function. Cirrhosis occurs in response to damage to your liver. Each time your liver is injured, it tries to repair itself. In the process, scar tissue forms. As cirrhosis progresses, more and more scar tissue forms, making it difficult for the liver to function which include Fluid accumulation in your abdomen (ascites), Confusion, drowsiness and slurred speech (hepatic encephalopathy), Testicular atrophy in men, Breast enlargement in men. Cirrhosis can also cause portal hypertension, Enlargement of the spleen (splenomegaly).

Hepatitis refers to an inflammatory condition of the liver. It’s commonly caused by a viral infection, but there are other possible causes of hepatitis. These include autoimmune hepatitis and hepatitis that occurs as a secondary result of medications, drugs, toxins, and alcohol. Autoimmune hepatitis is a disease that occurs when your body makes antibodies against your liver tissue. Viral infections of the liver that are classified as hepatitis include hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. A liver biopsy is an invasive procedure that involves your doctor taking a sample of tissue from your liver. This test allows your doctor to determine how infection or inflammation has affected your liver. Corticosteroids, like prednisone or budesonide, are extremely important in the early treatment of autoimmune hepatitis.

Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver characterized by diffuse or patchy necrosis. Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is one exception. This type of liver disease occurs when your immune system attacks your liver cells. AIH is a chronic condition that can result in cirrhosis (scarring) of the liver. certain risk factors have been identified, including mainly a family history of AIH. Autoimmune hepatitis likely results from a combination of autoimmunity, environmental triggers, and a genetic predisposition. It occurs more frequently in females. Treatment typically includes corticosteroids and medications that suppress the immune system. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be needed. Ischemic hepatitis differs from other types of hepatitis. Which can have many causes, most commonly a virus (as in hepatitis A or B). However, in ischemic hepatitis, the liver is not inflamed. Rather, liver cell death(necrosis) occurs. The term hepatitis is used because technically, it refers to any disorder in which enzymes called aminotransferases leak from damaged liver cells into the blood.

To diagnose hepatitis, first your doctor will take your history to determine any risk factors you may have for infectious or noninfectious hepatitis. Liver function tests use blood samples to determine how efficiently your liver works.

High liver enzyme levels may indicate that your liver is stressed, damaged, or not functioning properly. An abdominal ultrasound uses ultrasound waves to create an image of the organs within your abdomen. It can reveal Liver tumors, Liver failure, Abnormalities of gall bladder. Treatment options are determined by which type of hepatitis you have and whether the infection is acute or chronic.

Viruses are the intracellular parasites that depend on synthetic processes of host cells. They cannot be grown on ordinary medium. Special microscopes are needed to visualize their structure, which consists of Genome (genetic material consisting of DNA or RNA component but never both), Surrounding capsid –proteinaceous in structure, Envelope –protein bilayer. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an important cause of end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The decision to treat is based on the activity of liver disease and HBV replication status, and the likelihood of a long-term benefit. Approved therapies include standard and pegylated interferon-alfa and nucleoside analogues: lamivudine, adefovir and entecavir. Even with successful therapy, patients remain at risk for reactivation of viral replication and require lifelong monitoring.

HBV in HBsAg-positive patients treated with allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Highly active antiretroviral therapy is initiated for decreasing mortality relating to HIV. Influenza can be type A, B or C depending upon type. Influenza A and B are more common.

It's not something you probably think much about, but your liver is a key player in your body's digestive system. Everything you eat or drink, including medicine, passes through it. You need to treat it right, so it can stay healthy and do its job. Eat a healthy diet and get regular exercise. Your liver will thank you. You'll keep your weight under control, which helps prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a condition that leads to cirrhosis. Watch out for certain medicines. Some cholesterol drugs can occasionally have a side effect that causes liver problems. Alcoholic beverages can create many health problems. They can damage or destroy liver cells and scar your liver.

It is normal for the liver to contain some fat and by itself, this causes no symptoms. In some patients, the excess fat can cause inflammation called steatohepatitis. Steatohepatitis can lead to cirrhosis (fibrosis, scarring and hardening of the liver). There is also an association with liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma). Fatty liver can be classified as alcohol and nonalcohol related. Alcohol is a direct toxin to the liver and can cause inflammation. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic related steatohepatitis (NASH).

Obesity is a major health problem worldwide. Obesity also increases the risk of developing several diseases such as type II diabetes, insulin resistance, coronary heart disease (responsible for heart attacks), cerebrovascular disease (responsible for strokes), high blood pressure, gout, gallstones, colon cancer, sleep apnea, and a form of liver disease called nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) is a rare, potentially fatal complication that occurs in the third trimester or early postpartum period. Although the exact pathogenesis is unknown, this disease has been linked to an abnormality in fetal fatty acid metabolism. Early diagnosis of AFLP sometimes can be difficult because it shares features with other common conditions such as pre-eclampsia, viral hepatitis and cholestasis of pregnancy.

Liver cancer is the condition which occurs when normal cells in the liver become abnormal in appearance and destructive to the adjacent normal tissues, which can spread to other areas of liver or to the other organs outside of the liver. Cancer cells are characterized by the procurement of several capacities amid the stages of tumorigenesis, maintenance of proliferation signaling, induction of angiogenesis, activation of invasive resistance to cell death, inhibition of growth suppressors, and metastatic pathways, ability to evade immunological destruction and alteration of cellular metabolism. The clonogenic capacity of stem cells was evaluated by the stem cell colony formation assay.

The molecular targets of interest have expanded from angiogenesis to cancer cell-directed oncogenic signaling pathways for advanced HCC treatment. The feasibility of combining locoregional therapies and targeted agents, and the use of novel agents after curative treatments are currently under active investigation. Finally, the therapeutic strategy has shifted from monotherapy to combination targeted therapy.

Considering certain cases liver cancer occurs due to genetic inheritance. Due to recessive genes, the human body will not fight against the antigens as they are unable to recognize and produce antibodies against the antigens. Whole genome analysis technique is used to find the genomic aberrations; DNA hypo methylation promotes a diverse range of Liver cancers.

Liver diseases are mostly seen as in a grown-up, however, a huge number of children from babies to teens experience from different types of liver diseases. The volume of the liver and the blood flow decreases with age, immune responses against pathogens or neoplastic cells are lower in the elderly reducing their tolerability to treatments for liver diseases. Liver regeneration capacity shows a decline in age, reduced proliferation of hepatocytes, but the level of hepatic enzymes and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is well maintained. Pediatric hepatology focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of liver and liver-related disease in infants and children.

Liver imaging is basically for precise diagnosing biliary tract issue and is imperative for identifying liver injuries or damage and patients with a suspected malignancy is important because the liver is the common site of metastatic spread and those who are at the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma.

Liver transplant is an operation that replaces a replaces a person’s diseased heart with a partial or a whole liver from a donor. A rare condition in newborn infants is Biliary atresia in which the common bile ducts, which carry bile out of liver and present between the liver and small intestine is absent or blocked. Bariatric surgery performed on people, who have obesity through a variety of procedures. Removing a tissue sample (biopsy) from the liver may help diagnose liver disease. Liver biopsy is done using a long needle inserted through the skin to extract a tissue sample and then analyzed in a laboratory.